Eniko T. Enikov, PhD

Professor, BIO5 Institute, Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering
Email Address: 
Phone Number: 
(520) 621-4506

Internal Contact Information

UACC Organizational Unit: 
Professional Bio: 

Dr. Enikov's area of expertise is the design of micro-actuators, MEMS devices, and sensors. After completion of his training, he established the Advanced Micro- and Nanosystems Laboratory at the University of Arizona, where they have carried out numerous research projects involving precision assembly of micro-systems under optical feedback, development of wet actuators using ion-exchange polymers, pressure sensors, and accelerometers. In the last 8-years, his research has applied micro-technology to the development of medical devices. More specifically, they have developed a through-the-eye lid tactile tonometer capable of estimating intraocular pressure using an array of MEMS sensors. A second invention pertains to the development of an implantable ventricular peritoneal shunt with flow sensing capabilities. The present project represents a major focus of his laboratory. They have completed several early-stage studies on tactile tonometery supporting the present application. Given Dr. Enikov's technical background and prior effort in the area of tactile tonometery, he believes he is uniquely qualified to lead the proposed effort.

Research Information

Research Program: 
Cancer Imaging
Member Status: 
Affiliate Member
Summary of Research Activity: 
These are the areas in which Dr. Enikov's research are focused:
  • Biological Imaging
  • Biomaterials
  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering

Research Projects and Funding

(PI: Enikov) 2015-2018
NSF 1446098
NUE: Engineering Innovation in Biomedical Nanotechnology he objective of this NUE project, Engineering Innovation in Biomedical Nanotechnology, at the University of Arizona (UA), under the direction of Dr. Eniko T. Enikov, is to develop to introduce nanoscale science and engineering through an innovative use of a technical elective senior design course in mechatronics, followed by an ABET-mandated senior-level engineeirng capstone design project. The proposed activities include: 1) Delivery of mechatronics design course focused on use of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) sensors and the fabrication of an electro-spinning manufacturing cell. 2) Mentoring of two senior capstone design teams/year comprised of engineering and business students who will use the GMR sensors and electro-spinning apparatus in clinical applications (In collaboration with the UA College of Medicine and the College of Management). 3) Demonstration of a working prototype of a smart catheter with embedded flow sensor enabled by the application of super-paramagnetic nano-particles.

(PI: Enikov) 2015-2018
NSF 1462752
Dynamic Stabilization of Electro-Spinning Process for Production of Inflatable Drug-Delivery Stents Electrospinning, first discovered in the late 1930s, is a versatile method to create ultra-fine fibers from polymer solutions with diameters ranging from a few nanometers to several micrometers. Currently, electrospinning is the only method for the fabrication of continuous fibers at the nanometer scale.T his research will explore dynamic stabilization and electrostatic focusing as a new means to control the deposition of electrospun fibers. For the first time, it will examine the feasibility of focusing charged filaments inside a Paul-type linear ionic trap. Despite their widespread use in mass spectroscopy, linear ionic traps have never been used to trap macroscopic ions such as electrospun polymeric fibers. Using Floquet analysis, the research will examine theoretically the feasibility of trapping charged fibers and will establish the required trapping parameters. A closed-loop control of the electrospinning process based on the dynamic stabilization is also planned.

Completed Research Support

(PI: Enikov) 2013-2014
NSF 1311851
AIR Option 1: Technology Translation - Feasibility Analysis of Self-Administered Eye Tactile Tonometer

This PFI: AIR Technology Translation project focuses on translating micro-electromechanical (MEMS) tactile sensing and signal processing science to fill a non-invasive eye-pressure measurement technology gap. The translated technology has the following unique features: the ability to detect minute changes in the physical characteristics of soft materials and tissues, the ability to detect and measure pressure inside closed cavities in tissues and organs such as the human eye, and the ability to recognize changes that might occur due to aging processes. The translated technology provides exemplary cost savings, convenience, and efficacy when compared to the leading competing corneal tonometry in this market space.

(PI: Enikov) 20011-2012
NSF 1157898
I-Corps: Hand-Held Tonometer for Transpalpebral Intraocular Pressure Measurement

This project is aimed at the development of a new method for non-invasive eye pressure measurement though the eye lid, which can be performed at home. The approach uses multiple force sensors combined with advanced signal processing techniques to extract the eye pressure.

(PI: Enikov) 2009-2012
NSF 0927661
Dynamics of Nanometer Gap Formation in Thermo-Tunneling Devices for Energy Conversion

The goal of this proposal, therefore, is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of creating nanometer vacuum gaps over extended areas using a dynamic equilibrium between Lorentz, Van der Waals, and electrostatic forces. The methods of modern dynamical system analysis and boundary control of distributed parameter systems will be applied to demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the feasibility of forming such gaps and to produce a new class of high-efficiency energy conversion devices.

(PI: Enikov) 2009-2012
NSF 0856761
Wearable Micro-Sensors for Digital Palpation Tonometry and Soft Tissue Analysis

The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a wearable tactile sensor that can be used for frequent measurements of IOP at home. The proposed tissue modeling and analysis will generate a 3D stiffness map of the eye and improve our understanding of the mechanical properties of the eye and its tissues. Societal benefits of the proposed research include reduced need for hospital visits and better management of episodes of elevated IOP and glaucoma. Further potential applications include prostate and breast cancer screening.

(PI: Enikov) 2007-2010
NSF 0633312
Low-Cost Multi-Purpose MEMS/Mechatronics Testing Laboratory for Undergraduate Students

This project developed a low-cost, multi-purpose undergraduate micro-mechatronics laboratory based on the principles of a learner centered education. The laboratory utilized inexpensive micro-controllers, a desktop maskless lithography tool and a wet bench allowing students to fabricate and test their own micro devices, without the need for access to a specialized clean room. Four different experimentswere developed; (1) micro-cantilever experiment demonstrating surface stress and molecular adsorption; (2) thermal micro-actuator experiment demonstrating thermo-elasticity, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and transient heat analysis in one dimension; (3) pressure sensor experiment demonstrating plate theory and piezo-resistivity; and (4) mechatronics experiment demonstrating system identification and closed loop control of a DC motor.

(PI: Enikov) 2006-2009
NSF 0603198
Virtual Three-Dimensional Tactile Display for Science and Technology Education of the Blind The main goal of

This proposal is to develop a novel 3D tactile display that allows students of science and math to ”touch” virtual 3D objects using a finger-worn micro-tactile display. The development of a novel 3 D tactile display will aid visually impaired in recognizing and studying complex three dimednioanl objects. The approach is unique building upon new fabrication techniques as well as using PC based 3D virtual presentation that allow a user of the proposed device to identify 3D objects via the tactile illusion phenomenon.

Selected Publications: 
  1. Eniko T Enikov, Shantanu S Kedar, and Kalin V Lazarov. Analytical model for analysis and design of v-shaped thermal microactuators. Microelectromechanical Systems, Journal of, 14(4):788–798, 2005.
  2. Francesco De Bona and Eniko T Enikov. Microsystems mechanical design. 2006.
  3. Gholam Peyman and Eniko Todorov Enikov. Method of modeling the behavior of an eye subjected to an external force, August 21 2009. US Patent App. 12/583,466.
  4. Zoltan Szabo, Mahdi Ganji, and Eniko T Enikov. Development of voice-coil micro-actuator for 3-d virtual tactile displays. In ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pages 1027–1033. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2011.
  5. Joshua Scott and Eniko T Enikov. Novel temperature compensation technique for force-sensing piezoresistive devices. Journal of micromechanics and microengineering, 21(11):115017, 2011.
  6. Eniko Todorov Enikov, Gholam Peyman, et al. Eye tonometry apparatus, systems and methods, June 14 2011. US Patent 7,959,570.
  7. Peter P Polyvas, Eniko T Enikov, Gholam Peyman, and Vasco Polyzoev. Trans-scleral tonometry: Mechanical palpation of the eye. In ASME 2011 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pages 229–233. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2011.
  8. Sean J McCafferty, Jim T Schwiegerling, and Eniko T Enikov. Corneal surface asphericity, roughness, and transverse contraction after uniform scanning excimer laser ablation. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 53(3):1296–1305, 2012.
  9. Sean J McCafferty, Jim T Schwiegerling, and Eniko T Enikov. Thermal load from a co2 laser radiant energy source induces changes in corneal surface asphericity, roughness, and transverse contraction. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 53(7):4279–4288, 2012.
  10. Zoltan Szabo and Eniko T Enikov. Development of wearable micro-actuator array for 3-d virtual tactile displays. Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis & Applications, 4(6), 2012.
  11. Eniko T Enikov, Marcel Madarasz, and Peter P Polyvas. Experimental and numerical analysis of ocular tactile tonometry. In ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pages 259–267. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2012.
  12. Gholam A Peyman and Eniko T Enikov. Method for production of electro-spun tubular anastomosis / revascularization device for treatment of ischemic tissue, October 11 2012. US Patent 20,120,259,294.
  13. Peter P Polyvas, Gholam Peyman, and Eniko T Enikov. Trans-scleral tactile tonometry: An instrumented approach. Medical engineering & physics, 35(7):937–943, 2013.
  14. PP Polyvas, M Madarasz, and ET Enikov. Development of tactile eye stiffness sensor. Experimental Mechanics, 53(5):819–828, 2013.
  15. ET Enikov, PP Polyvas, R Janco, and M Madarasz. Evaluation and testing of novel ocular tactile tonometry device. In Mechatronics 2013, pages 847–854. Springer International Publishing, 2014.

Professional Information

Positions and Honors: 
  • 1987-1993: Bulgarian Ministry of Higher Education, stipend for study abroad.
  • 1992: 2nd and 3rd place at TU Budapest Student Research Competition.
  • 1985-1987: NASA/JPL Graduate Student Researcher Fellowship.
  • 1993: Finalist, Best M.S. thesis competition, Technical University of Budapest.
  • 1997,1998: Graduate College Fellowship, University of Illinois, Chicago.
  • 2000: Best Paper Award, The Advanced Energy Systems Division, ASME (co-authored with A. Francois-Saint-Cyr, J. S. Kapat, L. C. Chow, and
  • K. B. Sundaram).
  • 2007: U.S Fulbright Scholar to Hungary.
  • 2013-14: UA College of Engineering da Vinci Innovation Fellow.

Academic Information

Post Doctoral: 
Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS), University of Minnesota 1998-2000
PhD, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1998
Master's Degree: 
M.Sc., Technical University of Budapest, 1993
Undergraduate School: 
B.S., Technical University of Budapest, 1993